Current situation and Countermeasures of wooden packaging for quarantine abroad
1 Direction for the establishment of quarantine rules and regulations for wooden packaging in various countries
in today's world, countries have become more and more strict in formulating quarantine rules and regulations for wooden packaging imported from other countries, and it can even be considered that almost all countries in the world will implement some quarantine systems. Based on this tendency, this paper quotes EU rules, which recently indicated that quarantine rules and regulations should be strengthened, and makes exploratory thinking on the current situation and future direction of quarantine rules and regulations for wooden packaging. On July 7, 2000, the European Commission announced a quarantine measure plan to remove pine wood nematodes and other pests mixed with coniferous wood packaging. The case stipulated that the target countries were Japan, the United States, Canada and China, and the content was "all goods shipped since January 1, 2001 are applicable". Therefore, it caused great repercussions. After investigating the difference between the travel value of the cross arm and the straight steel ruler, there was information such as "delaying the implementation for half a year". Finally, on February 2, 2001, the Edinburgh Forestry Commission announced that "it will apply from October 1, 2001 (or after), and in the future, it will clarify the application method and period through intergovernmental negotiations".
here, based on this information, discuss the rules and regulations and direction.
(1) the relevant new rules initially announced by the recognized country of application are aimed at all "susceptible wood" in Canada, China, Japan and the United States.
(2) background note
pine wood nematodes were found in wooden packages shipped from Canada, China and the United States by Finland, Sweden and France the year before last. With the support of the Finnish EC Forest Health Bureau, urgent measures were taken with as much authority as possible. The Standing Committee on forest health believes that it is obviously not enough to use the existing bill to prevent pests in packaging materials and take the road of manufacturing new film blowing machinery. It decides to notify relevant countries through the World Trade Organization (World Health Organization) to strengthen the terms of unloading requirements and discuss them. A decision was made to implement it on October 1st, 2001.
(3) what are the new rules and regulations?
that is, the susceptible wood from Canada, Japan or the United States must correspond to one of the following requirements:
· heat treat with a high temperature above 56 ℃ for at least 30 minutes and affix a seal indicating who and where the treatment was done.
· the drug is pressurized and soaked, and stamped with a seal indicating who and where it was treated.
· treat with fumigation and affix a seal indicating who and where the treatment was done.
any of the above treatments must be implemented with recognized measures, recognized specifications, and marked by recognized people.
(4) with regard to China's export goods
with regard to China's export goods, it is required to have an annex to the certificate to prove that the goods sent by it have been treated in one of the above treatment methods, or that the wood used is wood from areas where pine wood nematodes are guaranteed to be free.
but for the timber from these areas, in order to prevent the spread of chrysanthemum worms, borers and other pests listed in the list, it is also necessary to be consistent with the established rules and regulations, requiring that the timber be free of bark; There is no wormhole above 3mm; The water content is below 20%.
(5) International Standard for conifer packaging materials
Edinburgh Forestry Commission and the professional committee preparing the international standard quarantine guidelines cooperate and interact. In order to prevent the spread of a certain insect among many pests that pose a threat to trees and forest areas, a comprehensive treatment method may be recommended. This quarantine guideline will outline the characteristics of the treatment methods included in the EC decision. Once these are adopted, it is estimated that the European Commission will publish its decisions before May 2002 and make further amendments to make the international standards consistent with the guidelines. Considering the future rules and regulations, it is estimated that heat treatment may become the mainstream, and there is also a guarantee from a public authority and a mark of treatment. In addition, fumigation treatment was added to the rules and regulations announced this time, but it was not included in the initial quarantine measure plan. It is conceivable that countries will eventually recognize fumigation treatment.
2. Rules and regulations for Japan
countries around the world have rules and regulations for wooden packaging in Japan, such as, the European community, the Republic of Finland, Australia, Canada, the people's Republic of China (except Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, but including those entering China through Hong Kong), New Zealand, Brazil, the United States and other countries. The quarantine requirements for wooden packaging have been included in the quarantine commodity items, pest objects to be quarantined, the benchmark of disinfection grade, and other requirements. The details have been compiled by the export business personnel of the quarantine department of the agricultural and horticultural Bureau of the Ministry of agriculture, forestry and Fisheries of Japan (the "province" is equivalent to the Ministry of China), and have been issued in the form of "list of main plant quarantine requirements for wooden packaging quarantine in major countries".
here, refer to the list to talk about what kind of disinfection standard is there and what other items are required. In terms of disinfection level, Australia has collected the requirements of various countries
· catalogue of commodities as quarantine objects: wooden packaging
· pests as quarantine objects: tree bees, etc.
· benchmark of disinfection of quarantine objects
(1) heat treatment
boiler for heat treatment room (with 2 sets of operation) heat source: lamp oil, With temperature recorder
heat treatment engineering (actual steam outlet) use steam with temperature of 85 ℃ for 4 hours
for drying of packaging materials, and bake the materials to below 12 ℃ with water content as weight. After that, conduct damp heat treatment.
hygrothermal treatment (above 74 ℃)
(2) anti corrosion and ant proof treatment
copper chromium arsenic compound (CCA)
copper grade 4 ammonium compound (mitrexaqc)
boron B preferred ammonium compound (celborp)
copper fluxed ammonium compound - tanalithe mixture (tanalithe)
copper HDO boric acid mixture (wolmanitcx-10)
the treatment dosage should be calculated according to the volume of wood.
(3) sulfuryl fluoride (so 2F 2) fumigation
(4) other requirements
disinfection certificate issued by private parties is required.
now, the National Plant Quarantine Association of Japan is engaged in the issuance of disinfection certificates. The above are the quarantine rules and regulations of major countries in the world, such as fumigation, heat treatment, anti-corrosion treatment and so on.
here is another country, China. Use the following chapters to briefly describe the cases of China's rules and regulations. Catalogue of commodities subject to quarantine: coniferous wood packaging (packaging wood, base plate, support plate, etc.)
· pests subject to quarantine: pests such as American white moth (moth), pine wood nematode
· standard of disinfection, etc.: the heart temperature of heat treated
wood is above 56 ℃ and more than 30 minutes
· other requirements
disinfection certificate issued by plant epidemic prevention should be attached. The application procedures are handled by associations such as the National Plant Quarantine Association. In addition, for the wood packaging of broadleaf trees, plywood, fiberboard and other plywood, plastic, steel, etc., a declaration document is required, stating that non coniferous trees and non wood packaging are used
3. The corresponding situation of China's quarantine rules and regulations
China has implemented quarantine rules and regulations since the beginning of 2000. So, what kind of correspondence has China made? Here, several implementation cases are extracted from the corresponding records at that time for introduction, for reference to the corresponding EU in the future.
(1) implementation background
the fumigation treatment of wooden packaging implemented since 1992 failed to improve the effect due to incomplete measures. Pine wood nematodes have been found in wooden packages in Japan since last year.
(2) take emergency quarantine measures
the China Quarantine Bureau has put forward quarantine requirements for goods exported from the United States and Japan to China.
(3) imported materials
even if Japan adopts imported materials, these materials may also be contaminated when imported into Japan. Therefore, no matter where the origin is, there must be proof. It is proved that the treatment was made in Japan.
(4) even goods entering the mainland of China through Hong Kong are listed as quarantine objects if their original places of origin are Japan and the United States.
the corresponding contents of China's quarantine rules and regulations studied at that time are heat treatment, plywood and broadleaf pine. In terms of heat treatment, due to the validity of the certificate of 3-4 weeks, the use is limited. In addition, due to different places of use, sometimes the distance to the heat treatment plant is very long, and the transportation cost is very high. Therefore, other methods have been studied by every means. Fortunately, a timber company can introduce Nanyang broadleaf tree from Indonesia, and according to the structure of the board, it is corresponding to an increase of 20-50%
4. Quarantine rules and regulations outside Japan and superior grounding installation policies
on September 18, 1998, the U.S. government issued a quarantine measure of "the coniferous packaging wood of China's import and export goods should be disinfected by heat treatment, fumigation, etc., and attached with a disinfection certificate". The implementation of quarantine rules is applicable to the goods exported from Chinese ports on December 17, 1998. Against this background, the United States assumed that a large number of borers occurred in the pallets imported by China, and because there were no natural enemies, they were afraid of spreading, so it strengthened the rules and regulations only for China. Although the required values are different, the disinfection and other contents are basically the same as those for Australia.
(1) advance countermeasures
now the packing pallets of China's goods exported to the United States are treated with fumigation, and the specified certificate is valid for 21 days. The issuance of the certificate is strictly carried out, and animal and plant quarantine offices everywhere are issuing "fumigation and disinfection certificates" according to the "technical requirements for quarantine treatment of imported and exported wood packaging in the United States". The fumigant uses fluoride sulfate, which is not registered in Japan. The cost of fumigation is about 4-5 times that of Japan, about 0.5us$per pallet.
(2) future countermeasures
in the future, once the new rules and regulations of EU, etc. begin to apply, heat treatment must be considered in the future. Photo 5 ∽ 10 shows the heat treatment equipment of China pallet factory. It can be expected that after the rules and regulations of various countries are filled in the future, the requirements of disinfection methods in line with various regulations will be higher. It is generally believed that enterprises from all countries entering and leaving China are discussing or adopting male mold slides and corrugated cardboard other than wood. In fact, there are plywood and bamboo board. I have only seen bamboo boards, but I have never commented on them. For plywood, there are test parameters, please refer to them. The sample of plywood is a kind of proposed plywood, and its price is almost the same as that of Chinese pine timber tie board now purchased in China. The tree species is French Wutong tree, with 9 layers. The test results of bending strength, bending Young's coefficient and nail pulling endurance are as follows: the nail pulling endurance is 20% lower than that of JAS structural plywood; The average bending strength is 42N/mm 2 (430kgf/M 2). It can be predicted that it is no different from the plywood in Japan, and the plywood problem can be solved locally at a low cost. According to the news published on October 25th, 2000, the animal and plant quarantine service of the United States Department of agriculture is beginning to revise the quarantine requirements and standards for packaged wood that is at risk of bringing diseases and pests. he
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